Best Poli Sci Schools In California

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The Cal State LA campus is one of the top schools in the country for economic mobility. Justifrein

Best Poli Sci Schools In California

When the development offices of big, fabulously wealthy universities like Harvard, Yale, Stanford and Columbia present themselves to potential donors, the number one message is always the same: financial aid.

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Reinforced by the profile of gifted students from modest backgrounds who enter these elite schools, Harvard (endowment: $35.7 billion) and Yale ($25.4 billion) are poor cities and low-income neighborhoods. Help students pay their school fees. Institutions are not only leading producers of innovative research; They are actually engines of upward social mobility. So while these schools look like extraordinarily large hedge funds involved in keeping disadvantaged children out of school, they are actually the primary guarantors of the American dream.

But the latest research from the Equality Project — Stanford’s Raj Chetty, Brown’s John Friedman, and Harvard’s Nathaniel Hendren — suggests that’s a myth. Chatty and Friedman, along with co-authors Emmanuel Says, Danny Yegan (both at Berkeley), and Nicholas Turner of the U.S. Treasury Department, used a sample of 10.8 million people born between 1980 and 1982 to estimate the effects of individual colleges. Used a large data set. They are likely to move to the higher end of the income distribution.

They were able to match the Department of Education’s individual college attendance records — up to age 34 in 1980 for the oldest students — with the future earnings of both students.

Their parents’ income is shown on their tax returns. This, in turn, allowed them to look at how many children were born in the bottom 20 percent of the income distribution (family income of $25,000 or less for the 1980 cohort) compared to the top 20 percent or even the top 20 percent. managed to make the top 1 percent. . Also, because the sample size is so large, they can break it down by school.

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The good news is that elite schools do a pretty good job of getting poor kids into the top 20 percent.

Good for them for being in the top 1 percent. At Harvard, more than half of students born into families in the bottom fifth of the income scale earned income in the top 20 percent ($58,000 a year for adults their age), and nearly one in eight in the top The percentage was $197,000 per year) between the ages of 32 and 34. Stanford fared even better: 18.5 percent of participants in the bottom quintile were in the top 1 percent.

But there is a problem: these schools are barely educating poor children. In the 1980-1982 cohort, only 3 percent of Harvard students were from the bottom fifth of the income distribution. For Stanford, the share was only 3.6 percent. These students are underrepresented in elite schools, five times their share of the general population. According to a useful New York Times interactive created using this data, schools have improved slightly over the years.

In the class of 2013, 4.5 percent of Harvard students and 4 percent of Stanford students ranked in the bottom fifth. By contrast, 15 percent of Harvard students and 17 percent of Stanford students come from the top one percent, families earning $630,000 or more annually. Schools were three to four times more likely to teach the most affluent than low-income children.

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Instead, the real heroes emerging from the study are not the Ivies, but the less selective schools that enroll large numbers of students from low-income backgrounds and help them move up the income ladder. These include schools like the City College of New York, or Los Angeles State, or the University of Texas Pan American (which has since become UT Rio Grande Valley). More than a fifth of these three schools’ students come from the bottom fifth of the income scale, and all three are ranked among the top 10 schools for the proportion of students who are in two or more income quintiles.

There are two major lessons from this. One is that schools like Harvard and Stanford probably need to admit and enroll many low-income students because when

, the results are truly incredible; They simply haven’t shown much ability to get into a student body that reflects the economic makeup of the country. And the problem is not financial aid (which is already very generous at these schools), but dating; These schools are not just serving the needs of thousands of high-achieving poor children.

The second lesson is that policymakers should pay more attention to the CUNY and UT Rio Grande Valleys of the world. So-called heroes are a large category of colleges that are successfully serving and advancing low-income students, and we still don’t fully understand what they’re doing or how to emulate them.

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Study authors use various metrics to track the schools they study, but three are the most important:

If you rank schools by access rate, you get a very different picture than success rate. The best schools with a 20 percent success rate specialize in high-skill, well-paying professions like health or engineering. The California Naval Academy, Rose-Holman Institute of Technology, Harvey Moody College and the Advanced Institute of Hair Design are all pharmacy schools in the top three.

But these schools do not educate many poor children. For example, 1.7 percent of Rose-Hulman students come from the bottom 20 percent, according to the most recent data. Among the most accessible schools, top-performing MCPHS University (formerly Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences) admits 8.9 percent of its students from the bottom 20 percent, which is better than most Ivies, but Still not ideal.

Were in the top fifth of the income distribution. However, their overall impact is limited because they do not admit many of these students.

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Success rate: The proportion of poor children who end up not only in the top 20 percent, but also in the top.

Percent. The best schools by this metric tend to be highly selective universities and liberal arts colleges. Claremont McKenna tops the list, followed by Rhodes College, Stanford, Harvey Moody, Caltech, Columbia, Johns Hopkins and Penn. (St. Louis College of Pharmacy ranks ahead of Princeton, Harvard and MIT.)

If you’re a poor kid who gets into one of these schools, you have a shocking chance to become one of the richest people in America. About a third of Claremont McKenna students from the bottom 20 percent are in the top 1 percent. At Caltech and Columbia, they have a 15 percent chance of topping the rankings. Considering that the average poor kid has less than a 1 percent chance of being in the top one percent, that’s pretty good.

But most of these schools do not admit many poor people either. Only 4.8 percent of Claremont McKenna students come from the bottom fifth of the income scale. Princeton has only 2.2 percent. Although a few students apply in large numbers, these schools enroll so few that their overall effect on social mobility is small.

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At the other end of the spectrum, sorting schools by access reveals a large number of schools that enroll many poor children but do not offer much mobility. The high school is not very representative (United Talmudic Seminary, Satmar Yeshiva in Brooklyn), but Moultrie Technical College, a public technical college in Georgia near the Florida border, offers a good case study. Almost half of the students come from the bottom fifth of the income scale – a very good number if the school is really trying to help with social mobility. But only 2.9 percent of low-income students reach the top fifth of the income scale.

Moultrie’s overall mobility rate — access successfully distributed — is 1.3 percent. More than one in 100 students are poor kids who come to TOP after school. That’s exactly the same share as Princeton, though the two schools arrived at their dismal rankings in very different ways.

There are two types of problems in schools. There are highly effective schools that barely enroll poor children but achieve very little, and very ineffective schools that enroll many poor children but provide very little.

If you rank schools by their overall mobility rate—the access they provide to poorer students—multiples the results.

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