I’ve been studying Chinese for a few months now. As I continue to discover new study tools and methods, I will share them with you here. While these posts focus on learning Chinese, the strategies I write about are largely applicable to studying other languages as well — East Asian or otherwise.
Today, I’m going to tell you about a little computer program called Anki.
I first discovered Anki while living in Tokyo during the summer of 2008. Since then, I’ve used it for studying Japanese, Korean, and now Chinese. Though I haven’t used it consistently, I’ve always found that my vocabulary and reading abilities grow by leaps and bounds when I do use it.
What is Anki?
At its core, Anki is a digital flashcard program, which uses cards just like the 3×5 notecards you used to cram for exams during high school and college.
With Anki, however, there are no cumbersome paper cards to deal with — Anki stores all of your “cards” in its database and displays them on your computer/tablet/phone screen.
While the above definition makes Anki sound like a simple replacement for paper flashcards, in reality it’s much more than that.
One of the big problems with traditional flashcards is that your deck of cards doesn’t know what you’ve learned and what you’re still having trouble with.
For instance, say you’re brushing up on your English. You have a deck of 100 cards. One of your cards has the word cat — an easy word. Another one of your cards has the word contumacious — a word which many of you are probably scrambling to look up in your dictionaries right now. (Hint: Look at the image above.)
Obviously, learning cat is much easier than learning contumacious. But when cycling through your deck of 100 flashcards, you’re going to see both words equally often.
Some people overcome this problem by organizing their flashcards into different stacks based on how well they know the information. This is both time consuming and not particularly efficient.
That’s where Anki comes in.
The power of Spaced Repetition
Anki uses what’s called “spaced repetition” to maximize your learning efficiency. When used properly, spaced repetition can simultaneously reduce your time spent studying and improve you memory retention.
In concept, the way Anki does this is quite simple — it spreads repetitions of your cards out, only showing you flashcards as often as you need to see them.
In practice this means that once you learn cat, Anki won’t show it to you again until weeks or months later. But if contumacious keeps giving you trouble, Anki will show that card to you again and again until the word sticks in your memory.
Anki does this by asking you about each flashcard as you study. After you look at the question and check the answer, Anki asks you how difficult the flashcard was. It then uses this data to estimate how long it should wait before reviewing that card with you again.
As you continue to study, these intervals will eventually be measured not in days or even months, but in years!
Now that’s what I call long-term memory.
Where To Get Started
Personally, I do most of my studying on my Google Nexus 7, as I appreciate its portability and I prefer the AnkiDroid interface to the desktop program. However, it’s easy to change platforms at any time — Anki synchronizes decks across platforms via the web, so you can study on your phone or tablet one day and on your computer the next day if you like.
Self-made vs. Pre-made Decks
Although some people prefer to make all of their own cards (and I’ve done this in the past as well), there are also many pre-made decks available for Anki. You can check them out at the Anki shared decks page.
Making a deck yourself is a great exercise, as it gives you complete control over the information that’s in your deck. Thus, all of the cards are tailored precisely to your needs.
However, making a deck can be time consuming, and some of pre-made decks come complete with audio and visual elements that would be difficult to recreate on your own.
For my studies, I’ve been using a series of decks called Mastering Chinese Characters. Overall, I’m really impressed with these flashcards — so much so that I’m going to save my praise for them for a separate post.
(Keep in mind that language learning is not the only use for Anki — it’s versatile enough that you could use it to memorize the periodic table or even cram for a bar examination. You can find many pre-made decks for these topics as well.)
What’s the downside?
In this blogger’s opinion, the biggest drawback of Anki as a language learning tool is that it can trick you into feeling a false sense of progress. At times, Anki seems like a magic bullet that’s allowing you to become proficient quickly, when in reality it’s only helping you improve in a few areas.
It’s true that Anki makes it easy to learn many new vocabulary words and Chinese characters in a shorter time that you ever would’ve thought possible. Because of that, however, it’s easy to become obsessed with studying solely via Anki at the expense of adopting a more well rounded approach.
I’m afraid that I’ve been falling into this trap myself, in fact. Anki-study has composed the majority of my studying for the past month, and while it’s been great for learning how to read and write Chinese characters, I haven’t been investing as much time into speaking and grammar as I should. This is an issue that I’ll have to correct soon if I want to continue my forward progress.
I’ll leave you with an awkward Anki-inspired life story:
I like to study in coffee shops. A few times here in Taiwan, people have seen my notebook full of Chinese characters and they’ve approached me to strike up a conversation in Mandarin Chinese. Needless to say, these conversations don’t last long, and I feel quite embarrassed that I can write pages upon pages of characters without being able to speak well!
You win some, you lose some.
I’ll keep at it. You should too.
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Thanks again for your support.